Contraception Methods

Depo-Provera (“The Shot”)

 

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Effectiveness (chances of NOT getting pregnant): More than 99%

What is Depo-Provera?

  • It is an injection given every 3 months.
  • It contains synthetic progesterone.
  • It stops ovulation, and/or thickens the cervical mucus to prevent sperm from passing through.
  • It is a reversible method of birth control given only by prescription.

Advantages of Depo-Provera:

  • Does not interfere with sex.
  • Only need to get a shot 4 times a year.
  • May stop menses or make them very light.
  • Excellent alternative for women 35 and older who smoke.
  • Reduces the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer.

Disadvantages of Depo-Provera:

  • Irregular or unpredictable bleeding or spotting.
  • Possible hair loss.
  • Weight gain, especially right after pregnancy.
  • It may delay your chances of getting pregnant after the shots are stopped. It can take between six and eighteen months for menstruation and ovulation to return consistently. This does not mean that you are protected from pregnancy during this time. Use alternate protection, such as condoms.
  • Does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (see warning below).
  • You must go to the clinic or doctor’s office 4 times a year.

 

Female Sterilization

Effectiveness (chances of NOT getting pregnant): More than 99%

What is female sterilization?

A surgical intervention that mechanically blocks the fallopian tube to prevent the sperm and egg from uniting.

Advantages of female sterilization:

  • Very reliable and effective method of contraception.
  • Permanent method.
  • No long term side effects.
  • Does not interrupt lovemaking.
  • Does not require partner involvement.
  • Nothing to remember or buy.
  • Does not interfere with breast-feeding.

Disadvantages of female sterilization:

  • Permanent method.
  • Difficult and expensive to reverse surgical procedure.
  • Requires skilled surgeon to perform procedure.
  • Expensive procedure.
  • Possible ectopic (tubal) pregnancy if method fails.
  • No protection against sexually transmitted diseases.

 

Implanon

Effectiveness (chances of NOT getting pregnant): More than 99%

What is Implanon?

  • Six capsules containing synthetic hormones inserted under the skin of your upper arm.
  • Capsules slowly release hormones into the bloodstream over a 5-year period.
  • These hormones stop the ovaries from releasing an egg each month.
  • Hormones also thicken mucus in the cervix (opening to the uterus), stopping sperm from entering it.
  • Reversible method of birth control.

Advantages of Norplant:

  • Long term method can stay in for 5 years.
  • After 12 to 18 months of using this method, periods usually stop.
  • Can be removed anytime, and the woman can become pregnant right away.
  • Does not interfere with sex.
  • Reduces risk of ovarian or endometrial cancer.

Disadvantages of Norplant:

  • You may experience spotting between periods, light periods, longer periods, or no
periods.
  • You may experience weight gain and hair loss.
  • It is expensive anywhere between $500 and $700 depending on where you go (at a Title X Federally supported family planning clinic fees are based on family size and income, so fees could range from $0 to $700).
  • It requires minor surgery for insertion and removal of the capsules (done in the clinic or doctor’s office).
  • Effectiveness is lowered by most antiseizure medications.

 

NuvaRing (“The Ring”)

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Effectiveness

  • 99% chance of NOT getting pregnant
  • Less than 1 per 100 women may become pregnant with proper use.

What is the NuvaRing?

  • The NuvaRing is a comfortable, flexible contraceptive ring that is about two inches in diameter and contains synthetic low dose hormones (progestin and estrogen); these hormones are similar to those produced by a women’s body.
  • The NuvaRing is placed directly into the vagina; hormones are released from the ring and are directly absorbed through the walls of the vagina then distributed into the bloodstream.
  • Pregnancy is prevented because the ring prevents the ovaries from producing mature eggs.
  • The ring is a reversible method of birth control available only by prescription.

Advantages of NuvaRing

  • Does not interfere with sex. Ability to remove the ring at leisure.
  • No need to remember to put it on daily/weekly. Month long protection (3 weeks in, 1 week out)
  • Exact positioning of the NuvaRing is not critical; however the ring should be placed high in the vault of the vagina.
  • Muscles within the vagina allow the ring to stay in place during sex and/or exercise.
  • Reduces menstrual flow and cramping.
  • Decreases acne outbreaks.
  • Reduces the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer.
  • Ability to become pregnant immediately after discontinued use, if seeking pregnancy.

 

Ortho Evra (“The Patch”)

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Effectiveness

  • 95% – 99% chance of NOT getting pregnant
  • Between 1 and 5 per 100 women may become pregnant with proper use.

What is the Patch?

  • The Patch contains synthetic hormones (progesterone and estrogen); these hormones are similar to those produced by a women’s body.
  • The patch is placed directly on the skin; these hormones are released from the patch directly through the skin into the bloodstream.
  • Pregnancy is prevented because the patch stops ovulation and/or thickens the cervical mucus and stops sperm from passing through.
  • The patch is a reversible method of birth control available only by prescription.
  • The patch is less effective in women weighting more than 198lbs.

Advantages of the Patch

  • Does not interfere with sex.
  • No need to remember to put it on daily. Apply a new patch once a week.
  • Reduces menstrual flow and cramping.
  • Decreases acne outbreaks.
  • Reduces the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer.
  • Ability to become pregnant immediately after discontinued use, if seeking pregnancy.

 

Oral Contraceptives (“The Pill”)

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Effectiveness

  • 95% – 99% chance of NOT getting pregnant.
  • Between 1-5 per 100 women may become pregnant with proper use.

What is the Pill?

  • Synthetic hormones (progesterone and/or estrogen) like those produced by the body to regulate the menstrual cycle.
  • Pregnancy is prevented because the pill stops ovulation and/or thickens the cervical
mucus by stopping sperm from passing through.
  • Reversible method of birth control given only by prescription.

Advantages of the Pill:

  • Doesn’t interfere with sex.
  • Regulates the menstrual cycle.
  • Reduces menstrual flow and cramping.
  • Decreases acne outbreaks.
  • Reduces the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer.
  • Most popular method used.

 

Withdrawal (Coitus Interruptus)

Effectiveness (chance of NOT getting pregnant): 81% – 96%

 

Article information from www.health.com